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Cradle of Chinese Civilization

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Archaeological findings show that Hebei is one of birthplaces of the Chinese nation. Maybe Hebei was the origin of human race.

Not long ago, the standard earth layer of the Pleistocene Era was found in the Nihewan Basin by the Sanggan River in Yangyuan County, Hebei Province. It can be compared in archaeological research values with the Olduvai Valley in east Africa, which is commonly known by the world as the origin of human race. After 80 years of excavation and research, Chinese and foreign archaeologists found 80 cultural relics sites in an area 82 km long and 27 km wide along the Sanggan River. Tens of thousands of human and animal fossils and various kinds of stone tools were unearthed. They reflected almost all the evolution process of man from the Paleolithic Age to the Neolithic Age. So far China has found 25 cultural relics sites which dates back to over one million years ago. Among them, 21 belong to the Nihewan cultural sites. Especially the dining place of human 2 million years ago was found in 2001 for the first time at the Majuangou cultural site, which is recognized commonly by the world as the standard earth layer of the Fourth Period. The stone implements found there are the earliest relics of primitive man so far in Hebei.

The Nihewan cultural relics are so densely distributed and with so long a history that they are rarely seen in China and in the world as well. Because of their significance in prehistory, they were evaluated in 2002 as one of the 100 important archaeological findings in China. The Xiaochangliang Ruins at the Nihewan cultural sites, as witness to the earliest human activities at the farthest north end and one of the places of the origin of primitive people in China, had its name carved into the first step of the bronze passage at the China Millennium Monument. In 2001, the Nihewan cultural sites were listed among the fifth batch of cultural relics units under state protection and in 2002 designated as state natural reserve.

“Peking Man”, known as the remote ancestors of the Chinese people, once   lived and multiplied in the land of Hebei.

Zhoukoudian, southwest of Beijing, was formerly part of Fangshan County under Hebei Province until it was incorporated into Beijing's Fangshan District in 1958. On the Dragon Bone Hill near Zhoukoudian, there is a large cave, where excavation work was done successively by Chinese archaeologists during 1927-1937 and the years after the founding of New China in 1949. There they discovered bones of over 40 individual primitive men, fossils of over 100 different mammals, and tens of thousands of simple stone tools. They also found layers of ashes, which were about 10 meters deep. On December 2. 1929, a fossilized cranium of primitive man was discovered. This shocked China and the world. The primitive man was given the name “Peking Species of Primitive Man of China”, which was simplified to “Peking Primitive Man” or “Peking Man”. According to archaeologists, “ Peking Man” lived 690,000 years ago in the early stage of primitive society. This shows that in the remote past Hebei was the place where primitive man lived. Peking Man lived in the Paleolithic Age. They used chipped stone tools to hunt animals and gather food. They knew how to use and control fire and lived in large groups. While transforming the nature and tempering their bodies, they created the culture of remote ages.

In the Neolithic Age about 6,000-7,000 years ago, human activities in Hebei became more widespread, covering almost every mountain and plain in north and west Hebei. Cultural relics representing the Yangshao Culture, Longshan Culture and Microlithic Culture were found scattering all over the province. Over 70 relic sites of the Neolithic Age have been found in Hebei, such as the “Cishan Relics” of the “Cishan” culture, which belongs to the period of the Yangshao Culture. The Cishan Relics sites, located at the village of Cishan in Wu'an County, is about 7,300 years old. The cultural relics unearthed there from 1976 to 1978 include earthenware, stone and bone implements, totaling about 2,000 pieces. For instance, there are earthenware containers and supporters, stone mills, stone sticks, stone spades and stone sickles, and pig, dog, cattle and chicken bones. Millet was found among the grains unearthed. It is evident that at that time there were quite developed agriculture, animal husbandry and grain processing and that productive forces had reached a level higher than the primary stage of agricultural economy. The findings in the Cishan Relics gave clues for discovering even earlier origins of China's agriculture, animal husbandry and pottery making. Therefore, this discovery is regarded as a major breakthrough in the research on the Neolithic Age since the founding of new China. The large number of cultural relics proves that primitive people had worked and lived in Hebei 6,000-7,000 years ago. They led a life of part time fishing and hunting and part time farming and livestock raising. And they created splendid ancient civilizations.

Hebei, one of the birthplaces of the Chinese nation, has played an important role in the long history of China.

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Red Culture

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    In the modern times, the Yanzhao children with the whole nation wrote a deserving singing New Democratic Revolution epic whose content are anti-imperialist, anti-feudalism, anti-capitalism. “Yihetuan” movement initiated by Wei County, Hebei, in 1900, then affected all nation rapidly. It attacked the imperialism and the Qing Dynasty reactionary forces strongly. The Great Revolution time, Li Dazhao as the first group of Communist, sacrificed his oneself precious life for people's revolutionary business. The Anti-Japanese War time, the Hebei earth was the main battlefield oppugning-Japanese. The Chinese people attacked the Japanese invader powerfully using the tunnel warfare, the mine warfare, and the plain guerrilla warfare. “The hundred-regiment-campaign” occurring in Hebei once make the Japanese invader become terror-stricken at the news. In the fight in mountain Langya, Yixian county, the five heroes of the Eighth Route Army who resisted Japanese army, wrote a grand poem with the blood and the lives, which are called “the Langya five brave soldiers” by people. In China internationalism soldier Bethune's major activities occured in Hebei, finally died in Tang County, Hebei. In the Liberation War time, the Central Party Committee directed “three great campaigns” which shocked China and the world in Xibaipo Pingshan County Hebei, played a bugle liberating the entire China, and held the famous “the seven sessions the second CCP plenary conferences”. Xibaipo——“new China comes from here”. 
??The red culture is the Hebei traveling culture's hotspot, and the red traveling is an important constituent of Hebei travels, and the red scenic spot is the tourist scenery area collecting the mountains and rivers' scenery and the red traditional education. In here, you may experience Hebei's revolutionary tradition and the humanities spirit profoundly.

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Yan Zhao Culture

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    The Spring & Autumn Period and Warring States Period, Hebei belonged to Yan State and Zhao State, therefore Hebei is also named “Yanzhao”. The story of Jingke assassinated King Qin is well known for all people in China. Because of that, Yanzhao culture became the greatest traditional culture of Hebei. Yanzhao culture is a kind of region culture with strong characteristic. “Be free and loyalty, be heroic and generous” is its spirit characteristic, is the sole aspect of Yanzhao culture, has the plain and primitive characteristic. Yanzhao culture has the formidable personality strength, and is gradually maturing in history. The greatest style of literary and arts in Yanzhao area is “be heroic and generous”. It is the fixed invariable image, which is the sole aspect of Yanzhao culture. At the end of Cao Wei, Cao Cao and the other poets' activity center is Ye city. Their poems' style is bold and plain, generous and loyalty. Their literature creation style and the works have a kind of spirited and tragic style, called “Jianan Fenggu”. The cultural characteristic “be heroic and generous” formed and matured in the Warring States period, was praised by the people in the Sui and Tang dynasties time, till Ming and Qing Dynasties time it was still influencing people. It has continued around more than 2,000 years, formed glorious and stable tradition.
??The length and breadth Hebei earth raised sixty-seven million Yan and Zhao children, and Yan Zhao children all multiply and live in here. They not only has created the ancient Yanzhao culture, but also has formed Yanzhao Xiafeng who passed on from generation to generation. “Sui Book·Geography Will” writes:“Be heroic and generous”, “Be strong customs and loyalty”, “If the brave people were said since old times, they must come from States You and Bing.” Han Yu, the head of the eight great writers in Tang Song Dynasties,  has a famous saying, says “Yan Zhao has many heroic and generous men”; The greatest writer Su Dongpo in Song Dynasty also once sighed with regret: “The Place in You and Yan had many heroes writing in the historical books since old times.” Indeed, there are many heroes generation by generation on this land since old times. The Handan knight-errant is writed: “After thousands of gambles abundant families were still rich, after several revenges the body wasn't dead”; The State Yan assassin is writed:“The wind is blowing strongly and the water in Yishui River is so cold, as soon as the brave soldier leaves here, he will no longer come here”; The brave Zhang Fei from Zhuojun City is writed:“He roared on the head of Dangyang bridge, the bridge broke and the water flowed backwards”…… These has played a intense and resounding tune Yanzhao elegy. Since thousands of years ago, as a special social & humanities tourist resources, Yanzhao Xiafeng and the honorable Hebei folk custom always called in all directions tourist to experience and feel by its huge inspirational force.
    Handan is the capital city of ancient State Zhao. Here has formed Yanzhao Culture district taking this as the center. In here, you may see King Zhao city ruins, Zhaowulingwang terraces, the Yan Xiadu ruins and Pingshan State Zhongshan excavation and so on, and experience Yanzhao culture's “Be heroic and generous” and “Be strong customs and loyalty”.

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Ming Qing Culture

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    Ming and Qing Dynasties hold the extremely important status in the Chinese history. They not only are the heyday time of feudalism autarchy, but also is the Chinese culture matures time. The Ming and Qing Dynasties all established their capital city in Beijing. As the capital's key, Hebei not only is the most important region defending the national capital, but also is the good place all previous emperors going on sightseeing. Therefore Hebei possesses the characteristic Ming Qing culture. 
    The Ming Dynasty is written in the historical books by mobilizing the strength of the national to repair the Great Wall. Hebei is the province that the Great Wall is the longest, firmest, the construction style most representative. The Ming Great Wall within the boundaries of Hebei Province, east to Shanhai Pass Old-dragon, west to Mashikou, Huai'an County, distributes in Qinhuangdao, Tangshan, Chende, Zhangjiakou and Baoding city, etc, span more than 2,000 kilometers.
    Chende loyal summer resort is the extant biggest imperial garden in China, occupying nearly half Chende urban district. The eight temples outside summer-resort integrate the Han, Man, Mongolian and Tibet's temple construction style, is very majestic, and is the symbol of the bright Chinese culture. They have been included in the World Culture Inheritance Lists.
    Chende Mulanweichang is the Qing Dynasty imperial hunting ground. The first half of Qing Dynasty, the emperors came here to hold “Autumn Hunting in Mulan” every year. Its primary is hunting and touring. In 1690, there was a world-famous war named “Ulanbutong War”. The important historical event, bestowed the strong historical culture connotation on these beauty natural landscapes. 
    The East Qing Tombs located the south foothill of Changrui northwest Zunhua city and the West Qing Tombs located Yixian County, is one of the imperial mausoleum groups which are the biggest, most complete in China, is the most outstanding representative of Chinese imperial mausoleum construction arts since two thousand years. The East Qing Tombs and the West Qing Tombs were included in the World Culture Inheritance Lists in November 30, 2000, by its indisputable charm and her important history, art and the scientific value, and its value obtained recognition from all over the world.
    The Baoding Zhili government office is located the center of Baoding city. It is the only preserved integrity Qing Dynasty provincial level government office at present in China, also is the provincial level government office station of the four great Chinese ancient government offices special international traveling line. Renowned Liu Yong, Zeng Guofan, Li Hongzhang, Yuan Shikai etc. all have once been Zhili governor in this. Many great events which affect the political situation of the Qing Dynasty, all has the direct relation with this provincial government office, so it may be said, “one government office records the half history of the Qing Dynasty.”
These historic sites had demonstrated culture characteristics of the Ming and Qing Dynasties by its unique charm. They not only manifest the Hebei history vividly, but also is the best destination where the world guests play and meditate on the past.

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Ancient Culture

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    Hebei belonged to Jizhou in ancient times, therefore its short name is “Ji”. Hebei was one of Chinese nation's birthplaces. More than two million years ago, the first light of the human's civilization shined upon the Sanggan River bank in Hebei. More than 5000 years ago, Chinese nation's ancestor Emperor Huang, Emperor Yan and Chiyou became unity nation from war, thus founded the Chinese history of civilization in this place. Hebei has left the footprints of the emperors Yao, Shun and Yu in far ancient times. Fuxi and Nvwa's moving fable has increased many mystical colors to Hebei.
??After many years' archaeology excavating, we had discovered successively early humanity ruins altogether more than 80 sites, in Nihewan, Hebei. Thousands of fossils and stone tools have been found. The lowest position and the earliest time ruins have been discovered in Nihewan Majuangou ruins, in October 2001. It is calculated this ruins are apart from now about two million years. Nihewan tells people clearly: The eastern humanity comes from here.
??So far, the province has already discovered more than 70 Neolithic Age culture remains, the Yangshao culture, the Longshan culture; the microlith culture remains spreads in the entire province. In the Yangshao culture remains, the Cishan culture remains is the richest one. About 2,000 earthenware, stone implements, bone hornwares and so on had been excavated from 1976 to 1978 in here. The massive culture remains have proofed that six or seven thousand years ago, the humanity had worked, lived and propagate in Hebei area, and they lived by half hunting and fishing, half farming and animal husbandry, and has been created the rich ancient times culture.
    The Emperor Huang city located Xisanbao villages, Fanshan town, Zhuolu County. The Chinese nation started to establish the initial civilization 5,000 years ago from this ancient castle. The thing “Emperor Huang fought Chiyou in the field of Zhuolu” occurred in Fanshan town Zhuolu County now. The Chinese three ancestors memorial hall constructed by Contributed money by the overseas Chinese is plain and dignified. It had demonstrated three Chinese ancestors Emperor Huang, Emperor Yan and Chiyou's great merit to people, has manifested all Chinese people formidable cohesive force. The Chinese three ancestors culture tourist area including main scenic spots Huangdi City, Huangdi Spring, Chiyou Village and Chiyou Spring, is attracting more and more Chinese people to come here to inquire into and worship their ancestors. 
??Traveling to Hebei, not only traveler may appreciate the beautiful mountains and rivers scenery, but also may race to the source, to understand the bright ancient times culture.

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